(a) Iodine-131 with a half-life of 8.0 days and activity of 8 C may be taken as liquid or in a capsule.(b)Technetium-99 with a half-life of 6 hours gives gamma-rays of 140 ke V energy.(c) Iodine-123 is suitable for medical studies since it gives no beta- radiation.(d) Cobalt-60 sources of up to 10 000 curies have been used; such a source gives 200 R per minute at 1 m. The very long half-lives of these isotopes make them particularly suitable for finding the age of rocks.For example if you consider the uranium series that the final stable isotope is lead-206, and if we assume that there was no lead in the rock when it was formed the ratio of the number of atoms of lead 206 (N The carbon 14 is then absorbed by plants; these in turn are eaten by animals which may then be eaten by other animals.Medical uses of radioisotopes These fall into two main sections:(i) diagnostic where the radiation is used to locate a problem(ii) therapeutic where the radiation is used to treat a problem(a) Gamma radiation from Cobalt 60 has been found to be very useful in the treatment of some types of cancer(b) Syringes and other medical equipment can be sterilised using gamma radiation(c) Certain radioisotopes called tracers will concentrate in specific organs for analysis for example iodine 131 in the thyroid and technetium 99 in the brain, lungs, and red blood cells and can then be used to diagnose defects(d) Iodine 131 is also used to treat thyroid cancer (it has a half life of just over 8 days)(e) Iodine 123 (half life 13 hours) is also injected into a patient where it concentrates in some organs and the gamma radiation emitted by the source is scanned with a camera.is a technique used by scientists to learn the ages of biological specimens – for example, wooden archaeological artifacts or ancient human remains – from the distant past.People wonder how millions of years could be squeezed into the biblical account of history. Christians, by definition, take the statements of Jesus Christ seriously.Clearly, such huge time periods cannot be fitted into the Bible without compromising what the Bible says about the goodness of God and the origin of sin, death and suffering—the reason Jesus came into the world (See Six Days? He said, This only makes sense with a time-line beginning with the creation week thousands of years ago.This method is useful for igneous and metamorphic rocks, which cannot be dated by the stratigraphic correlation method used for sedimentary rocks. Some do not change with time and form stable isotopes (i.e.those that form during chemical reactions without breaking down).
So, we have a “clock” which starts ticking the moment something dies.
They have the same ratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12 as the atmosphere, and this same ratio is then carried up the food chain all the way to apex predators, like sharks.
C) dating usually want to know about the radiometric dating methods that are claimed to give millions and billions of years—carbon dating can only give thousands of years.
Here’s an example using the simplest atom, hydrogen. Carbon-14 is an unstable isotope of carbon that will eventually decay at a known rate to become carbon-12.
Radiocarbon dating uses isotopes of the element carbon. Cosmic rays – high energy particles from beyond the solar system – bombard Earth’s upper atmosphere continually, in the process creating the unstable carbon-14. Because it’s unstable, carbon-14 will eventually decay back to carbon-12 isotopes.