For example, when a country club or similar organization charges fees (dues) to members and provides substantial service benefits, e.g., the use of golfing, tennis and swimming facilities, the membership fees are not related to sales even though the organization may establish minimum meal and drink purchase requirements for its members. Initial or periodic membership fees received by consumer cooperatives, as defined in sections 6011..1 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, are not subject to tax.
Any sale of a membership described in subdivision (a)(1)(A) or (a)(1)(B) is regarded as related to the retail sale by the retailer selling tangible personal property to a member, not by the person selling the membership, measured by the amounts received by the person selling the membership. Charges for membership fees not related to anticipated retail transactions are not subject to tax.
§ 151 Classes and series of stock; redemption; rights. The board of directors may determine the amount of consideration for which shares may be issued by setting a minimum amount of consideration or approving a formula by which the amount or minimum amount of consideration is determined.
(a) Every corporation may issue 1 or more classes of stock or 1 or more series of stock within any class thereof, any or all of which classes may be of stock with par value or stock without par value and which classes or series may have such voting powers, full or limited, or no voting powers, and such designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights, and qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, as shall be stated and expressed in the certificate of incorporation or of any amendment thereto, or in the resolution or resolutions providing for the issue of such stock adopted by the board of directors pursuant to authority expressly vested in it by the provisions of its certificate of incorporation. The formula may include or be made dependent upon facts ascertainable outside the formula, provided the manner in which such facts shall operate upon the formula is clearly and expressly set forth in the formula or in the resolution approving the formula.
The Internal Revenue Code uses four tests to make this distinction: To prevent gamesmanship among related parties, Congress has added another layer of rules that must be analyzed to determine if a distribution is a redemption.
These attribution rules provide that shares owned by a shareholder’s parents, children, and grandchildren (but not siblings) are considered to be owned by the shareholder. Similarly, shares held by corporations, trusts, and partnerships are deemed to be owned by their shareholders beneficiaries, and partners, and vice versa. As a result, shares held by these family members and entities are considered to be owned by the shareholder for purposes of determining whether the distribution qualifies as a redemption.